A coarse woolen clothing fabric usually dyed red and used sometimes for undershirts of penitents. Also, archaically, the bright red color of stammel. The word is archaic.

From the story “Actors” in the collection Dictation by Cynthia Ozick, page 79.

The usage in context here is pretty undistinguished, as the word appears in a list of words that the author of crossword puzzles happens to know. It’s not really worth quoting.


I knew the verb form of the word but had never seen it used in this sense as a noun, and indeed even Merriam Webster online doesn’t record a noun form of the word. But from the etymology, we learn that it’s from the Latin granum for grain. So I take it that a garner, in the context here given, is a place for storing grain.

The Lord of the Rings, page 734.

The townlands were rich, with wide tilth and many orchards, and homesteads there were with oast and garner, fold and byre, and many rills rippling through the green from the highlands down to Anduin.


This is an archaic form of meadow.

The Lord of the Rings, page 464.

But the Entwives gave their minds to the lesser trees, and to the meads in the sunshine beyond the feet of the forests; and they saw the sloe in the thicket, and teh wild apple and the cherry blossoming in spring, and the green herbs in the waterlands in summer, and the seeding grasses in the autumn fields.


Dropsy is an old term for swelling caused by excess fluid under the skin or in cavities, such as edema caused by congestive heart failure.

I had read the word before but here record it from The Brothers Karamazov, p. 605 in Pevear and Volokhonsky.

Just next to him was another cot taken up by a local tradesman, paralyzed and all swollen with dropsy, who was obviously going to die in a day or two.